European Journal of Environmental Sciences <div> <p>The&nbsp;<em><strong>European Journal of Environmental Sciences</strong></em> offers a mixture of original refereed research papers, which bring you some of the most exciting developments in environmental sciences in the broadest sense, often with an inter- or trans-disciplinary perspective, focused on the European problems. The journal also includes critical reviews on topical issues, and overviews of the status of environmental protection in particular regions / countries. The journal covers a broad range of topics, including direct or indirect interactions between abiotic or biotic components of the environment, interactions of environment with human society, etc. For more details see the full Aims and Scope of the journal. The journal is published twice a year (June, December).</p> </div> Institute for Environmental Studies en-US European Journal of Environmental Sciences 1805-0174 <p><img src="" alt=""></p> <p>The journal applies the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer" data-saferedirecturl=";q=;source=gmail&amp;ust=1498303854119000&amp;usg=AFQjCNH67tnPLSbE07_rKTEN6OVwmr_ryg"><wbr>licenses/by/4.0</a>) to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by European Journal of Environmental Sciences, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</p> Ecological perspective of the diversity of functional responses <p>Prey-predator interactions have been modelled by numerous workers. Ecologists have continuously modified Lotka–Volterra equations in order to provide more realistic descriptions of the complexity of these interactions. The response of predator(s) to increasing prey density can be best described in terms of a functional response, which is an important criterion determining the success or failure of predator(s) to control fluctuating prey populations. The functional response of a predator is further differentiated into Holling’s Type I, II, III, IV and V. We discuss one-prey and one-predator interactions, in which the models are modified by the inclusion of steady-state satiation and growth factors. We review situations where two prey and one predator interact, and <em>vice versa</em>. We also discuss Holling’s Type IV model relevant to competition and food chains. There is a need to examine functional responses as these models were mostly developed by pure mathematicians and their relevance to field conditions remains largely untested. Prey-predator interactions can be affected even by small factors and ecologists should include these models in their experimental design when attempting to predict realistic interactions.</p> Ahmad Pervez Preet Pal Singh Hakan Bozdoğan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 8 2 97 101 10.14712/23361964.2018.13 Foraging behaviour of predaceous ladybird beetles: A review <p>We review the foraging behaviour of predaceous ladybirds in the light of current knowledge. Ladybirds should forage optimally to maximise their resources; however, they are limited – among other things – by their poor visual acuity. Ladybird foraging behaviour includes location of the habitat of its prey, location of prey and prey-selection. Chemical cues are important in locating the habitats of their prey. This is further driven by volatiles or semiochemicals emitted by injured plants, particularly in response to attack by herbivores. Various chemicals induce positive electroantennographic responses in ladybirds that guide them to prey sites. Honeydew secreted by aphids along with alarm pheromones or kairomones act as secondary chemical cues that narrow the search from extensive to intensive and help in prey location. Visual cues further aid prey-location and enable foraging adults to locate areas with patchy or abundant prey. Thereafter, ladybirds select their prey, which starts with random attacks that result in prey selection in terms of size and palatability. Prey selection seems to be host plant driven, i.e. aphids sequester host plant chemicals, which are imbibed by ladybirds. This is evident from the fact that nutritious prey cultured on toxic host plants are usually less preferred or rejected. Foraging ladybirds, especially larvae, can perceive ladybird footprints or odours that deter them from foraging. The above information could be useful in biocontrol programmes in which foraging ladybirds are manipulated by using chemicals as attractants or rearing aphids on nutritious host plants.</p> Ahmad Pervez Meena Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 8 2 102 108 10.14712/23361964.2018.14 Increasing concentration of deicing salt in soils in the Bavarian Forest National Park <p>The negative effects of applying deicing salts to ecosystems are well documented for many countries. Most chemical transport from roads occurs in stormwater runoff through or over soil. Runoff pollutants alter soil chemistry, may be absorbed by plants and affect stream ecosystems, where they are dispersed and diluted over considerable distances. There was little detailed knowledge of the effects of deicing salts on ecosystems in the Bavarian Forest NP until 2011, when nine permanent sites were established along the main road in the eastern part of the NP. Soil samples were collected from four of these permanent sites in 2012, 2015 and 2018 and analysed by a certified laboratory. The results of soil chemical analysis were used to compare sites and samples from years 2012, 2015 and 2018. Our research confirmed the increasing concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in ecosystems in the Bavarian Forest NP. The highest concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions were recorded in samples from sites # 4 and 5, which are located only several meters from the bank of the Grosse Ohe River. These concentrations were more than ten times higher than in samples from sites where deicing salt was not used. Amphibians, water insects and other extremely sensitive species and habitats occur in this part of the Bavarian Forest NP and are probably suffering from increasing salinity of their habitats. More research focusing on a better understanding of the spread of deicing salt in the ecosystem together with improving road maintenance technologies are need in order to improve the situation.</p> Zdenka Křenová Vladimír Zýval Vladimír Zýval Jr. Zdeňka Chocholoušková ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 8 2 109 116 10.14712/23361964.2018.15 Wind characterization of a Czech Carbon Observation System (CzeCOS) Site – Rajec <p>The main aim of the study is to investigate general and temporal characteristics of wind speed and direction at Ecosystem station (ES) Rajec located in southern highlands of the Czech Republic which is part of Czech Carbon Observation System (CzeCOS) network. Four years (2013-16) of eddy co-variance data from mature monoculture spruce (Picea abies) forest was used to build the wind rose and analyze the wind characteristics. The prevailing wind directions at ES Rajec were South-East and North-West and general orography of region being a highland does not impact the wind flow. Seasonal variation in the wind was observed which was mainly due to general circulation. The paper also investigates the occurrence of calm wind conditions (u &lt;1 m s<sup>-1</sup>) which was 6% on an average for four years and the average of day-time and night-time calm conditions were observed as 8% and 4% respectively.</p> Shilpi Chawla Vinh Xuan Nguyen Carlos P. Guerra Torres Marian Pavelka Jan Trusina Michal V. Marek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 8 2 117 123 10.14712/23361964.2018.16 Is measuring of temperature fluctuations following bark beetle infestation in differentially managed forests objective? <p>Proper management of woods infested by bark beetle – clearing infested trees to prevent spread of bark beetle, or leaving them to preserve biodiversity – is a hotly debated topic. Differences in temperature regime between differentially managed areas are often-used arguments in these discussions. Results from the field measurements are confusing. Therefore, here we review previous studies and report our results of using thermal sensors in the field to determine the factors that might affect the differences in temperature reported in previous papers. Our results indicate that the variability recorded in one particular habitat, dry forest, is associated with the specific characteristics of the locality of each microsite/sensor. We conclude that it is important to consider not only the temperatures recorded but also describe microsites in detail in terms of vegetation structure, sunshine or numbers of trees per unit area.</p> Karolína Bílá ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 8 2 124 130 10.14712/23361964.2018.17 Comparison of precipitation and temperature regime In the Šumava National Park and in the surrounding foothills <p>The IPCC IS92a scenario predicts climate changes including within-year fluctuations in precipitation and a temperature increase of 1.7 °C by the year 2050 and a further 2.7 °C by the year 2100. We attempted to detect these changes in the Šumava Mts. and compare them with climate changes in the surrounding foothills. We used meteorological data records for the years 1961-2017, provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI). We recorded a decrease in precipitation, including snow cover, in the mountains and in the foothills during the last 15-20 years. Air temperature has also increased significantly in spring and summer over the last two decades. We assume that the increase in spring temperature negatively affects snow cover and causes it to melt earlier. We found that all these changes affect both the Šumava National Park and the surrounding foothills at the same rate; as a result, natural disturbances such as windstorm and bark beetle infestations occur more often and are more severe in both areas. Thus, changes in temperature and precipitation must be also considered in future management planning.</p> Karolína Bílá Jiří Hostýnek Pavel Kindlmann ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 8 2 131 138 10.14712/23361964.2018.18